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翻译学丛:常用英语翻译技巧(3)

文章来源:        内容作者:        发布时间:2011-10-20  

5. 正译法和反译法:这两种 方法通常用于汉译英,偶尔也用于英译汉。所谓正译,是指把 句子按照与汉语相同的语序或表达方式译成英语。所谓反 译则是指把句子按照与汉语相反的语序或表达方式译成英语。正译与 反译常常具有同义的效果,但反译 往往更符合英语的思维方式和表达习惯。因此比较地道。如:

(1) 在美国,人人都能买到枪。

In the United States, everyone can buy a gun. (正译)

In the United States, guns are available to everyone. (反译)

(2) 你可以 从因特网上获得这一信息。

You can obtain this information on the Internet. (正译)

This information is accessible/available on the Internet. (反译)

(3) 他突然 想到了一个新主意。

Suddenly he had a new idea. (正译)

He suddenly thought out a new idea. (正译)

A new idea suddenly occurred to/struck him. (反译)

(4) 他仍然 没有弄懂我的意思。

He still could not understand me. (正译)

Still he failed to understand me. (反译)

(5) 无论如何,她算不 上一位思维敏捷的学生。

She can hardly be rated as a bright student. (正译)

She is anything but a bright student. (反译)

(6) Please withhold the document for the time being.

请暂时扣下这份文件。(正译)

请暂时 不要发这份文件。(反译)


6. 倒置法:在汉语中,定语修 饰语和状语修饰语往往位于被修饰语之前;在英语中,许多修 饰语常常位于被修饰语之后,因此翻 译时往往要把原文的语序颠倒过来。倒置法 通常用于英译汉,即对英 语长句按照汉语的习惯表达法进行前后调换,按意群 或进行全部倒置,原则是 使汉语译句安排符合现代汉语论理叙事的一般逻辑顺序。有时倒 置法也用于汉译英。如:

(1)At this moment, through the wonder of telecommunications, more people are seeing and hearing what we say than on any other occasions in the whole history of the world.

此时此刻,通过现 代通信手段的奇迹,看到和 听到我们讲话的人比整个世界历史上任何其他这样的场合都要多。(部分倒置)

(2)I believe strongly that it is in the interest of my countrymen that Britain should remain an active and energetic member of the European Community.

我坚信,英国依 然应该是欧共体中的一个积极的和充满活力的成员,这是符 合我国人民利益的。(部分倒置)

(3)改革开放以来,中国发 生了巨大的变化。

Great changes have taken place in China since the introduction of the reform and opening policy.(全部倒置)


7.包孕法:这种方 法多用于英译汉。所谓包 孕是指在把英语长句译成汉语时,把英语 后置成分按照汉语的正常语序放在中心词之前,使修饰 成分在汉语句中形成前置包孕。但修饰成分不宜过长,否则会 形成拖沓或造成汉语句子成分在连接上的纠葛。如:

(1)You are the representative of a country and of a continent to which

China feels particularly close. 您是一 位来自于使中国倍感亲切的国家和大洲的代表。

(2)What brings us together is that we have common interests which transcend those differences. 使我们走到一起的,是我们 有超越这些分歧的共同利益。


8.插入法:指把难 以处理的句子成分用破折号、括号或 前后逗号插入译句中。这种方 法主要用于笔译中。偶尔也用于口译中,即用同位语、插入语 或定语从句来处理一些解释性成分。如:

如果说 宣布收回香港就会像夫人说的"带来灾难性的影响",那我们 要勇敢地面对这个灾难,做出决策。

If the announcement of the recovery of Hong Kong would bring about, as Madam put it, "disastrous effects," we will face that disaster squarely and make a new policy decision.


9. 重组法:指在进行英译汉时,为了使 译文流畅和更符合汉语叙事论理的习惯,在捋清 英语长句的结构、弄懂英 语原意的基础上,彻底摆 脱原文语序和句子形式,对句子进行重新组合。如:

Decision must be made very rapidly; physical endurance is tested as much as perception, because an enormous amount of time must be spent making certain that the key figures act on the basis of the same information and purpose.

必须把 大量时间花在确保关键人物均根据同一情报和目的行事,而这一 切对身体的耐力和思维能力都是一大考验。因此,一旦考虑成熟,决策者 就应迅速做出决策。


10.综合法:是指单 用某种翻译技巧无法译出时,着眼篇章,以逻辑分析为基础,同时使用转换法、倒置法、增译法、省译法、拆句法 等多种翻译技巧的方法。如:

How can the European Union contribute to the development of a European film and television program industry which is competitive in the world market, forward-looking and capable of radiating the influence of European culture and of creating jobs in Europe?

欧洲联 盟应该怎样做才能对欧洲的电影电视工业有所贡献,使它在 国际市场上具有竞争能力,使它有 能力发挥欧洲文化的影响,并且能 够在欧洲创造更多的就业机会呢?

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